It is widely acknowledged that grammar has played a central role in language teaching. Syllabus design and a wide diversity of approaches to language teaching have relied on this assumption, namely, the fundamental role of grammar in second- or foreign-language learning.
Most people contend that the education system, as it manifests itself in many western countries, is inadequate and even pernicious. This general discontent should not be ignored; on the contrary, it should sensitize us to the problems that we are confronted with in our attempt to become educated citizens and, most importantly, individuals. But what does it mean to become individuals?
The pressure upon schools to improve and raise achievement is unlikely to recede over the next decade, which would suggest that the school effectiveness and school improvement research fields are likely to remain influential and popular with practitioners and policy makers alike. Until recently, these two traditions have gone their separate ways, mainly because of differences in methodological orientation and ideological position.
Indisputably, teaching pronunciation is one of the most complicated yet significant aspects of EFL / ESL teaching. That is why it has been looked upon as the “Cinderella” of language teaching (Kelly, 1969; Dalton, 1997).